Manifesto Links

This is an ordered list of all hyperlinks featured in the main text of the DisCO Manifesto. It doesn’t include footnotes or in-document links. The list has been revised and updated in March 2022 to update dead links since the original November 2019 publication date.

CHAPTER 1: Rage Against the Machine and Science Friction

  1. Deep Blue versus Gary Kasparov. Wikipedia article
  2. Twenty years on from Deep Blue vs Kasparov: how a chess match started the big data revolution. Mark Robert Anderson, The Conversation, May 2017
  3. Centaur Chess Shows Power of Teaming Human and Machine. Mike Cassidy, Huffington Post, December 2014
  4. What are humans still good for? The turning point in Freestyle chess may be approaching. Tyler Cowen, Marginal Revolution, November 2013
  5. How does a blockchain work – Simply Explained. Simply Explained YouTube channel, November 2017
  6. What do we mean by “blockchains are trustless”? Preethi Kasireddy, Medium, February 2018
  7. What’s the Difference Between Blockchain & Distributed Ledger Technology? Anthony Back, Medium, February 2019
  8. What Are Smart Contracts? CryptoNinjas website
  9. What is a DAO? Shermin Voshmgir, Blockchainhub Berlin, July 2019
  10. Blockchain for International Development: Using a Learning Agenda to Address Knowledge Gaps. John Burg, Christine Murphy, and Jean Paul Pétraud,MERL Tech, November 2018
  11. The Story of the DAO — Its History and Consequences. Samuel Falkon, Medium, December 2017
  12. Decentralized Applications – dApps. Shermin Voshmgir, Blockchainhub Berlin, July 2019
  13. Ethereum DApp User Counts Are Shockingly Low, Indicating Lack Of Adoption. CryptoIQ,, December 2018
  14. The Top 10 Valuable Facebook Statistics – Q2 2021. Dan Noyes, Zephoria Digital Marketing, June 2021
  15. New study quantifies bitcoin’s ludicrous energy consumption. Timothy B. Lee, Ars Technica, May 2018
  16. Blockchain: What’s it good for? Absolutely nothing, report finds. Lucas Mearian, ComputerWorld, December 2018
  17. Patterns for Decentralised Governance and why Blockchain Doesn’t Decentralise Power… Unless You Design It To. Richard D. Bartlett, P2P Foundation blog, September 2017
  18. Big Blockchain: The 50 Largest Public Companies Exploring Blockchain. Michael del Castillo, Forbes, July 2018
  19. HSBC Controversies. Wikipedia article section
  20. HSBC leans on blockchain tech to process $250b worth of fx transactions. Yessi Bello Perez, The Next Web, January 2019
  21. HSBC settles $250bn of FX transactions using distributed ledger technology. HSBC press release, January 2019
  22. Facebook Makes First Blockchain Acquisition With Chainspace: Sources. Alex Heath, Cheddar News, February 2019
  23. DECODE: Powering civic good with a blockchain. Chainspace, Medium, December 2018
  24. Facebook May Pose a Greater Danger Than Wall Street. Ellen Brown, Thruthdig. June 2019
  25. The obscure London startup that made Facebook’s Libra possible. Gian M. Volpicelli, Wired, June 2019
  26. IBM’s Role in the Holocaust — What the New Documents Reveal. Edwin Black, Huffington Post, March 2015
  27. The Shortsightedness of Blockchain Disillusionment. Avivah Litan, Gartner, September 2018
  28. Blockchain & Crypto Hype Cycle: Where We’re at and What’s Coming Next. Anthony Back, Medium, November 2018
  29. Emma Goldman’s dance revolution: a lesson in historical inaccuracy and meme devolvement. D.M. Collings, A Rrose in a Prose Revival! (sic), May 2018

CHAPTER 2: You say Potato, I say Decentralized: Semantics Matter

  1. DAOs, DACs, DAs and More: An Incomplete Terminology Guide. Vitalik Buterin, Ethereum Foundation Blog, May 2014
  2. Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet. Author unknown, Rand Corporation, March 2018
  3. On Distributed Communications 1. Introduction to Distributed Communications Networks. Paul Baran, Rand Corporation, August 1964
  4. David de Ugarte Biography. Guerrilla Translation, March 2014
  5. Why Centralized Cryptocurrency Mining Is a Growing Problem. Nathan Reiff, Investopedia, October 2021
  6. Life Inside a Chinese Bitcoin Mine. Motherboard Staff, Motherboard, December 2018
  7. Bitcoin emissions alone could push global warming above 2°C. Camilo Mora et al. Nature Climate Change, October 2018
  8. Bitcoin Inequality Statistics. P2P Foundation Wiki
  9. What to do once you admit that decentralizing everything never seems to work. Nathan Schneider, Hackernoon, September 2019
  10. 10 Tasty Bitcoin cakes and cookies. Ofir Beigel, 99 Bitcoins, June 2019
  11. Heterarchy. P2P Foundation Wiki
  12. Equipotentiality. P2P Foundation Wiki
  13. How to change the course of human history. David Graeber and David Gengrow, Eurozine, March 2018
  14. Ethereum: Freenet or Skynet? Primavera De Filippi, Guerrilla Translation, November 2014
  15. Ethereum: Freenet or Skynet? Video Lecture. Primavera De Filippi. Berkman Klein Center, April 2014
  16. Skynet (Terminator). Wikipedia article
  17. Linux Wins at Final Jeopardy. Coolguys, SUSE. February 2011
  18. IBM Watson: Final Jeopardy! and the Future of Watson. IBM YouTube Channel, February 2011
  19. IBM Watson AI criticised after giving ‘unsafe’ cancer treatment advice. Natasha Bernal, The Telegraph, July 2018
  20. IBM Turns Watson Into A Cybersecurity Weapon Amid White House Interest. Alex Konrad, Forbes, February 2017
  21. IBM CEO Ginni Rometty staff email addresses Trump immigration order, council participation. Darrell Etherington, TechCrunch, February 2017
  22. IBM Blockchain. IBM website.
  23. Exvestment. P2P Foundation Wiki.
  24. Why We Cooperate. Michael Tomasello, The Montreal Review, September 2011
  25. Associationalism. Wikipedia article.
  26. The Commons, Short and Sweet. David Bollier, P2P Foundation blog, September 2017
  27. Cooperative identity, values & principles. International Cooperative Alliance website.
  28. Transformative Economies. Ripess Europe website

CHAPTER 3: Last Night A Distributed Cooperative Organization Saved My Life 

  1. Seeing the Forest. David Bollier. Commons Transition, October 2015
  2. Water Commons. P2P Foundation blog
  3. Social Currencies. P2P Foundation blog
  4. Free Software. P2P Foundation blog
  5. Urban Commons. P2P Foundation blog
  6. Building the Open Source Circular Economy. P2P Foundation blog
  7. Patterns of Commoning Contents. Patterns of Commoning website
  8. A Shareable Explainer: What is a Platform Co-op? Maira Sutton, Cat Johnon and Neal Gorenflo. Shareable, August 2016
  9. Case Study: Enspiral. Commons Transition Primer website
  10. Case Study: Fairmondo. Commons Transition Primer website
  11. Julien Reynier And Fabrice Clerc From L’atelier Paysan On Self-Build Communities In Farming, Michel Bauwens, Commons Transition, March 2017
  12. Why AnyShare is the First ‘Complete’ Cooperative in the US. Darren Sharp, Shareable, March 2017
  13. Case Study: Mutual Aid Networks. Commons Transition Primer website
  14. Re-imagining Value: Insights from the Care Economy, Commons, Cyberspace and Nature. David Bollier, Commons Strategies Group, March 2017
  15. Case Study: Sensorica. Commons Transition Primer website
  16. Backfeed. P2P Foundation Wiki
  17. CoMakery. CoMakery website
  18. Metamaps. Metamaps website
  19. Why we need feminist economists. Naila Kabeer, Our Economy, March 2018
  20. From Platform to Open Cooperativism. Stacco Troncoso & Ann Marie Utratel, Commons Transition, April 2017
  21. Cooperative identity, values & principles. International Cooperative Alliance website
  22. Reimagine, Don’t Seize, the Means of Production. Stacco Troncoso & Ann Marie Utratel, Truthout, January 2018
  23. Valueflows. Valueflows website
  24. Caring for the health of the collective. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  25. Caring for the health of the members of the collective. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  26. Federation Protocol. Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0, Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  27. Cooperative identity, values & principles. International Cooperative Alliance website
  28. Off-Chain Governance. districtOx Educational Portal website
  29. P2P Foundation. P2P Foundation website
  30. About the P2P Foundation. P2P Foundation website
  31. The White Paper by Satoshi Nakamoto. Guide by Jaya Klara Brekke, Ignota Books, January 2019
  32. P2P Foundation account previously associated with Satoshi Nakamoto makes a new post after four years of being inactive. Steven Zheng, The Block Crypto, December 2018
  33. Blockchain, P2P Foundation wiki
  34. About the P2P Lab. P2P Lab website
  35. The Commons Transition Primer. Commons Transition Primer website
  36. Ostrom’s Law: Property rights in the commons. Lee Anne Fennell, March 2011
  37. Forever 20 years away: will we ever have a working nuclear fusion reactor? Michael Brooks, The New Statesman, November 2014
  38. Research: Corporations Fail to Deliver on Blockchain Hype, Scalability a Top Concern. Avi Mizrahi,, October 2018

CHAPTER 4: Punk Elegance: The Story of Guerrilla Translation and the Guerrilla Media Collective

  1. Guerrilla Media Collective. Guerrilla Media Collective website
  2. Guerrilla Translation. Guerrilla Translation blog
  3. Think Global, Print Local: A crowdfund for a new publishing and distribution network. Ann Marie Utratel, P2P Foundation blog, March 2016
  4. Peer Production License. P2P Foundation wiki
  5. “Think Global, Print Local”: A Case Study On A Commons-Based Publishing And Distribution Model. Kostakis et al. Journal of Peer Production, May 2017
  6. Pensar desde los comunes de David Bollier, Medialab Matadero YouTube channel, filmed November 2016
  7. Punk Elegance: How Guerrilla Translation reimagined itself for Open Cooperativism. Stacco Troncoso and Ann Marie Utratel, Guerrilla Translation blog, August 2018
  8. Value Sovereignty. P2P Foundation wiki
  9. Expressions of power. Powercube website
  10. The Open Coop Governance Model in Guerrilla Translation: an Overview. Stacco Troncoso, Guerrilla Translation blog, September 2018
  11. Federation Protocol. Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0, Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  12. Community Rhythms. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  13. Norms and boundaries. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  14. Guerrilla Translation’s Goals and Values. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  15. Content Curation Guidelines. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  16. Our Story and Founding Principles. Guerrilla Translation website
  17. Roles and responsibilities (in ascending order of participation). Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0, Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  18. Guerrilla Translation. Guerrilla Translation blog
  19. Main Page. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  20. Mutual Support. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  21. The soft stuff is the hard stuff: the importance of a care work. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  22. Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  23. Federation Protocol. Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0, Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  24. PonzICO: Let’s Just Cut to the Chase. PDF Whitepaper, May 2017
  25. New generations meet new alternatives: the Commons and the Youth Initiative Program. Stacco Troncoso, Stacco Troncoso blog, January 2019
  26. Rage Against the Machine and Science Friction: a video introduction to DisCOs. Stacco Troncoso, Stacco Troncoso blog, July 2019
  27. P2P and the Commons course with the Youth Initiative Program. Flickr photo Album. January 2019
  28. Spiralseed. Spiralseed website
  29. DECAL. DECAL website
  30. Commons Transition. Commons Transition Website
  31. Fairmondo Global. Fairmondo website
  32. Fairbnb. Fairbnbn website
  33. La Louve. La Louve website

CHAPTER 5: Turn the Beat Around: Community Algorithmic Trusts and Care Oriented Cooperativism

  1. Many mistrust banks, but why you mistrust banks says a lot. Erika Vause, Aeon, November 2016
  2. Robert Anton Wilson. Wikipedia article
  3. Trustless Technology: The Core of the Blockchain. Jason King, Blockchain Beach, February 2018
  4. Goodhart’s law. Wikipedia article
  5. Interview: Ruth Potts. Ruth Potts with Jonny Gordon-Farleigh. Stir to Action, Spring 2018
  6. ‘Stansted 15’ protester Ruth Potts deportation concerns remain. Authors unknown, BBC News, January 2019
  7. Donna Haraway. Wikipedia article
  8. Blockchain Just Isn’t As Radical As You Want It To Be. Rachel O’Dwyer, Longreads, August 2017
  9. Blockchain and the Law. The Rule of Code. Primavera De Filippi and Aaron Wright. Harvard University Press, September 2018
  10. The Guerrilla Translation Handbooks. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  11. Dating Phase for Transition Translators. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  12. Dunbar’s number. Wikipedia article
  13. Silvia Federici reflects on Wages for Housework. Raia Small, New Frame, October 2018
  14. The (A)Political Economy of Bitcoin. Vasilis Kostakis and Chris Giotitsas, Triple C, June 2014
  15. Commons-Based Peer Production in a Nutshell. P2P Value team, P2P Foundation blog, January 2017
  16. The Commons Transition Primer. Commons Transition Primer website
  17. Patterns of Commoning: Eight Design Principles for Successful Commons. Elinor Ostrom, P2P Foundation blog, October 2016
  18. Community Land Trusts, Urban Land Reform And The Commons. Pat Conaty and Mike Lewis, Commons Transition, July 2015
  19. Cats and the Internet. Wikipedia article.
  20. Quarterly: Retrospective. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  21. Commitment Statement. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  22. Nothing About Us Without Us. Wikipedia article
  23. Fear of missing out. Wikipedia article

CHAPTER 6: Open-Value Co-ops for Radical Workplace Democracy

  1. The Financialization of Life. Salvatore Iaconesi, P2P Foundation blog, September 2017
  2. Distributed Cooperative Organization (DisCO) Governance Model V 3.0. Guerrilla Media Collective wiki
  3. Quarterly: Retrospective. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  4. Hebbian theory. Wikipedia article
  5. An intentional egalitarian community as a small-scale implementation of Post-Capitalism. Katarzyna Gajewska, P2P Foundation blog, July 2016
  6. Introduction to Cooperatives. Permanent Culture Now website
  7. About Platform Co-ops. Platform Cooperativism Consortium website
  8. Cooperativism in the digital era, or how to form a global counter-economy. Michel Bauwens and Vasilis Kostakis, P2P Foundation blog, March 2017
  9. Social and Solidarity Economy. International Labour Organization website
  10. Microsolidarity homepage. Microsolidarity website
  11. How on Earth? Flourishing in a Not-for-Profit Economy by 2050. Donnie Maclurcan and Jen Hinton, Medium, July 2019
  12. The definitive guide to Secure Scuttlebutt. Cléber Zavadniak, Medium, April 2018
  13. How to reap the benefits of the “digital revolution”? Cosmolocalism YouTube channel, October 2019
  14. Towards a Commons Creating Peer Economy. Silke Helfrich, Commons blog, May 2013
  15. Reimagine, Don’t Seize, the Means of Production. Stacco Troncoso & Ann Marie Utratel, Truthout, January 2018
  16. Commons Based Reciprocity Licenses, Commons Transition website
  17. Peer Production License. P2P Foundation wiki
  18. Think Global, Print Local and licensing for the Commons. Stacco Troncoso, P2P Foundation blog, May 2016
  19. FairShares homepage. Fairshares website
  20. Fairshares and Co-operative Values. Fairshares wiki
  21. What does “permissionless” mean? Peter Van Valkenburgh, Coin Center, January 2017
  22. Capitalism: an introduction. Steven May,, May 2011
  23. 7 Cooperative Principles. Infographic, Diverse Power website
  24. Basic criteria for prospective Guerrilla Translators. Guerrilla Media Collective Wiki
  25. !Mediengruppe Bitnik + Omsk Social Club. Abandon Normal Devices website
  26. Facecoin In More Detail. Rhea Myers, Rhea Myers blog, January 2014
  27. Plantoids. Okhaos website
  28. Dogecoin homepage. Dogecoin website
  29. Richard D. Wolff. Wikipedia article
  30. Economic Prosperity and Economic Democracy: The Worker Co-Op Solution. Richard D. Wolff, Truthout, January 2014
  31. Power and Imagination. Yuval Noah Harari, author’s website
  32. DGOV Foundation. DGOV Foundation website
  33. The Human Condition. Wikipedia article
  34. How can I take part in the Commons Transition? Commons Transition Primer website

CHAPTER 7: The Last Dance: The Future is Unwritten

  1. David Fleming. Wikiquote
  2. PAF Basics. Performing Arts Forum (PAF) website
  3. Practicing Accountability at PAF. Performing Arts Forum (PAF) website
  4. Freedom technologists and the future of global justice. John Postill, TNI State of Power report 2016, January 2016
  5. A Beginner’s Guide To The Decentralized Internet. Lisa Blanning, Electronic Beats, September 2018
  6. The Cult of Sharing. Mike Bulajewski, Meta Reader, August 2014
  7. Don’t buy the blockchain hype. Ersin Akinci, Medium, February 2018
  8. P2P Models. P2P Models website
  9. OSCoin. OSCoin website
  10. Economic Space Agency – Protocols For Post-Capitalist Economic Expression. Economic Space Agency website
  11. DECAL Decentralised Arts Lab. Furtherfield website
  12. The Commons Stack. Commons Stack website
  13. DGOV Foundation. DGOV Foundation website
  14. Giveth. Giveth website
  15. Trustlines. Trustlines website
  16. Join Circles. Circles UBI website
  17. terra0. terra0 website
  18. Common Ground: Securing Land Rights and Safeguarding the Earth. Fred Pearce, Oxfam, March 2016
  19. Measuring the Size and Scope of the Cooperative Economy: Results of the 2014 Global Census on Co-operatives. Dave Grace & Associates, April 2014
  20. Co-Op Ownership: 175 Years Of People Over Profits. Lauren Gawthrop, The Good Food’s blog, August 2018
  21. At the Crossroads: The Co-operative and Commons Movements. David Bollier, Pat Conaty and John Restakis. Commons Transition Wiki, August 2014
  22. Not alone: what the UK can learn from union co-ops. Pat Conaty, Open Democracy, December 2016
  23. History of Trade Unions. Wikipedia article
  24. Trade unions around the world support global climate strike. Matthew Taylor, The Guardian, September 2019
  25. Not alone: what the UK can learn from union co-ops. Pat Conaty, P2P Foundation blog, December 2016
  26. Working Together: Trade union and co-operative innovations for precarious workers. Pat Conaty, Alex Bird and Cilla Ross, Cooperatives UK
  27. 78% of companies say they run operations on open source. Paul Santinelli,, May 2015
  28. The Open Source Way. website
  29. How open-source software took over the world. Mike Voplu, TechCrunch, January 2019
  30. Buen Vivir. Sergio Beltrán, This Changes Everything website
  31. What is Social Solidarity Economy. Ripess website
  32. Radical Municipalism: Fearless Cities. Jenny Gellatly and Marcos Rivero, P2P Foundation blog, April 2018
  33. What Exactly Is Ecofeminism? JR Thorpe, Bustle, April 2016
  34. Decoloniality. Wikipedia article
  35. What is Degrowth? website
  36. Maker culture. Wikipedia article
  37. What is Permaculture? Permaculture UK website
  38. Anti-austerity movement. Wikipedia article
  39. What are P2P Politics? Commons Transition Primer website
  40. Fearless Cities. Fearless Cities website
  41. Public-Commons Partnership. P2P Foundation wiki
  42. Commonification of Public Services. P2P Foundation wiki
  43. How Feminism Helps Everyone. Carly Friesen, Carly Friesen blog, August 2017
  44. Feminism is not only about equality, and there is more work to do! Ernest W. Adams, Quora
  45. DisCO Project. website
  46. Strengthening the Movement for a Cooperative Digital Economy Through The Platform Co-op Development Kit. Trebor Scholz, Platform Cooperativism Consortium, September 2019
  47. Scuttlebutt social network: a decentralised platform. Secure Scuttlebutt website
  48. Activity Pub. Activity Pub website
  49. Valueflows. Valueflows website
  50. IPFS powers the Distributed Web. IPFS website
  51. Radicle. Radicle website
  52. Reni Eddo-Lodge, author’s website

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